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Associate Professor Lee Soo Chin

Head and Senior Consultant, Department of Haematology-Oncology, National University Cancer Institute, Singapore (NCIS)

Associate Director (Research), National University Cancer Institute, Singapore (NCIS)

Associate Professor and Senior Principal Investigator, Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, National University Singapore


Dr Lee obtained her medical degrees from the National University of Singapore and the Royal College of Physicians, United Kingdom, and completed a fellowship in cancer genetics at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, United States. She is currently Head and Senior Consultant in Medical Oncology and Associate Director of Research at the National University Cancer Institute, Singapore, and Senior Principal Investigator at the Cancer Science Institute, Singapore. She is ex-Chairperson of the Chapter of Medical Oncologists, Academy of Medicine, Singapore, and has been a member of the Ministry of Health Specialist Accreditation Board for Medical Oncology since 2009. She has been Chair of the National Healthcare Group Domain-Specific Ethics Review Board B since 2008. She is also a member of the Singapore Ministry of Health Drug Advisory Committee for Oncology drugs.


She specializes in breast cancer and directs the Cancer Genetics program at the National University Cancer Institute, Singapore. Her research focus is on breast cancer, pharmacogenetics and cancer genetics, and she has been the Principal Investigator of more than 40 industry-sponsored and investigator-initiated breast cancer clinical trials. She directs the Haematology-Oncology Research Group, a cancer clinical trials unit that conducts 100-120 phase I-III therapeutics clinical trials in solid tumors and haematological malignancies at the National University Cancer Institute.


She was awarded the Singapore National Medical Research Council Senior Clinician Scientist Award in 2009 and again in 2015, and has almost 150 peer-reviewed publications in major oncology and pharmacogenetics journals, including Cancer, Oncology, Lancet Oncology, JAMA Oncology, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, British Journal of Cancer, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Pharmacogenetics and Genomics, Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, New England Journal of Medicine and Nature Genetics. She has reviewed for international journals including Gut, British Journal of Cancer, Pharmacogenetics and Genomics, Personalized Medicine, Annals of Oncology, Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, and Pharmacogenomics.


Education and Fellowships

MBBS, MRCP (UK), M Med (Int Med), FAMS, FRCP (UK), Familial Cancer Risk Assessment and Management Credential (Institute for Clinical Evaluation, USA)


Specialty Interests

  • Breast cancer
  • Cancer genetics
  • Pharmacogenetics


Awards and Honours

  • HMDP Fellowship (FY2000) for cancer genetics fellowship with the John Hopkins University, USA, March 1999 to August 2000
  • NUH STAR award for excellent clinical service (individual), 2005
  • National Medical Research Clinical Junior Clinician Scientist Investigator Award, 2006
  • National Healthcare Group Dr Ang Ah Ling Research Ethics Training Award, 2009
  • A*STAR Clinician Scientist Award (Senior Investigator), 2009 and 2015


Professional Memberships

  • Member, American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • Fellow and Past Chairperson, Chapter of Medical Oncologists, Academy of Medicine, Singapore Member, Singapore Society of Oncology


Selected Publications (out of 148)

  1. Phase Ib/II randomized, open-label study of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide with or without low-dose, short-course sunitinib in the pre-operative treatment of breast cancer. Wong AL, Sundar R, Wang TT, Ng TC, Zhang B, Tan SH, Soh TI, Pang AS, Tan CS, Ow SG, Wang L, Mogro J, Ho J, Jeyasekharan AD, Huang Y, Thng CH, Chan CW, Hartman M, Iau P, Buhari SA, Goh BC, SC Lee. Oncotarget 2016; 7(39): 64089-99.
  2. High expression of intratumoral stromal proteins is associated with chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer. Wang T, Srivastava S, Hartman M, Buhari SA, Chan CW, Iau P, Khin LW, Wong A, Tan SH, Goh BC, SC Lee. Oncotarget 2016; 7(34): 55155-68.
  3. Liquid biopsy and therapeutic response: Circulating tumor cell cultures for evaluation of anticancer treatment. Khoo BL, Grenci G, Jing T, Lim YB, SC Lee, Thiery JP, Han J, Lim CT. Sci Adv 2016; 2(7): e1600274.
  4. Pictilisib for oestrogen receptor-positive, aromatase inhibitor-resistant, advanced or metastatic breast cancer (FERGI): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial. IE Krop, IA Mayer, V Ganju, M Dickler, S Johnston, S Morales, DA Yardley, B Melicha, A Forero-Torres, SC Lee, R de Boer, K Petrakova, S Vallentin, EA Perez, M Piccart, M Ellis, E Winer, S Gendreau, M Derynck, M LAckner, G Levy, J Qiu, J He, P Schmid. Lancet Oncol 2016; 17(6): 811-21.
  5. Phase Ib/2 study of the HSP90 inhibitor AUY922 plus trastuzumab in metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer patients who have progressed on trastuzumab-based regimen. A Kong, D Rea, S Ahmed, JT Beck, RL Lopez, L Biganzoli, AC Armstrong, M Aglietta, E Alba, M Campone, SH Schmitz, C Lefebvre, M Akomov, SC Lee. Oncotarget 2016 Apr 25 (epub ahead of print).
  6. Neratinib plus paclitaxel vs trastuzumab plus paclitaxel in previously untreated metastatic ERBB2-positive breast cancer: The NEfERT-T randomized clinical trial. A Awada, R Colomer, K Ionue, I Bondarenko, RA Badwe, G Demetriou, SC Lee, AO Mehta, SB Kim, T Bachelot, C Goswami, S Deo, R Bose, A Wong, F Xu, B Yao, R Bryce, LA Carey. JAMA Oncol 2016, Apr 14 (epub ahead of print)
  7. Anticancer properties of nimbolide and pharmacokinetic considerations to accelerate its development. L Wang, DD Phan, J Zhang, PS Ong, WL Thuya, RA Soo, AL Wong, WP Yong, SC Lee, PC Ho, G Sethi, BC Goh. Oncotarget 2016, Mar 2014 (epub ahead of print).
  8. High throughput mutation profiling changes before and 3 weeks after chemotherapy in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. SH Tan, NS Sapari, H Miao, M Hartman, M Loh, WJ Chng, P Iau, SA Buhari, R Soong, SC Lee. Plos One 2015, Dec 2; 10(12): e0142466.
  9. Simvastatin-induced breast cancer cell death and deactivation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK signaling are reversed by metabolic products of the mevalonate pathway. TT Wang, S Seah, XY Loh, CW Chan, M Hartman, BC Goh, SC Lee. Oncotarget 2015, Nov 11 (epub ahead of print).
  10. Genetic factors affecting drug disposition in Asian cancer patients. NL Syn, WP Yong, SC Lee, BC Goh. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2015, Dec ; 11(12): 1879-92.
  11. Hypothermia for preventing chemotherapy-induced neuropathy: a pilot study on safety and tolerability in healthy controls. A Bandla, R Sundar, LD Liao, S Tan, SC Lee, NV Thakor, EP Wilder-Smith. Acta Oncol 2015 Sep11:1-7 (epub ahead or print).
  12. Pharmacogenetic versus clinical dosing of warfarin in individuals of Chinese and African-American ancestry: assessment using data simulation. NL Syn, SC Lee, LR Brunham, BC Goh. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2015 Oct; 25(10): 491-500.
  13. Prognostic role of adjuvant radiotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer: A historical cohort study. N Bhoo-Pathy, HM Verkooijen, FY Wong, JP Pignol, A Kwong, EY Tan, TN Aishah, WL Nei, GF Ho, B Tan, P Chan, SC Lee, M Hartman, CH Yip, R Dent.
  14. Short-term expansion of breast circulating cancer cells predicts response to anti-cancer therapy. Khoo BL, SC Lee, Kumar P, Tan TZ, Warkiani ME, Ow SG, Nandi S, Lim CT, Thiery JP. Oncotarget. 2015 Jun 20;6(17):15578-93.
  15. Tumour pharmacodynamics and circulating cell free DNA in patients with refractory colorectal carcinoma treated with regorafenib. Wong AL, Lim JS, Sinha A, Gopinathan A, Lim R, Tan CS, Soh T, Venkatesh S, Titin C, Sapari NS, SC Lee, Yong WP, Tan DS, Pang B, Wang TT, Zee YK, Soong R, Trnkova Z, Lathia C, Thiery JP, Wilhelm S, Jeffers M, Goh BC. J Transl Med. 2015 Feb 12;13:57. doi: 10.1186/s12967-015-0405-4.
  16. Phase I and biomarker study of OPB-51602, a novel signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 inhibitor, in patients with refractory solid malignancies. AL Wong, RA Soo, DA Tan, SC Lee, JS Lim, PC Marban, LR Kong, YJ Lee, LZ Wang, WL Thuya, R Soong, MQ Yee, TM Chin, MT Cordero, BR Asuncion, B Pang, S Pervaiz, JL Hirpara, A Sinha, WM Xu, M Yuasa, T Tsunoda, M Motoyama, T Yamauchi, BC Goh. Annals of Oncology 2015; Epub ahead of print.
  17. Feasibility of Low-Throughput Next Generation Sequencing for Germline DNA Screening. Sapari NS, Elahi E, Wu M, Loh M, Ng HK, Han X, Yap HL, Klemm TP, Pang B, Benoukraf T, Teo YY, Iacopetta B, SC Lee, Soong R. Clinical Chemistry 2014 Oct; Epub ahead of print.
  18. The genomic landscape of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Lin DC, Meng X, Hazawa M, Nagata Y, Varela AM, Xu L, Sato Y, Liu LZ, Ding LW, Sharma A, Goh BC, SC Lee, Petersson BF, Yu FG, Macary P, Oo MZ, Ha CS, Yang H, Ogawa S, Loh KS, Koeffler HP. Nature Genetics 2014 Aug; 46(8):866-71.
  19. SPHK1 regulates proliferation and survival responses in triple-negative breast cancer. A Datta, SY Loo, BH Huang, LK Wong, SSL Tan, TZ Tan, SC Lee, JP Thiery, YC Lim, WP Yong,YL Lam, AP Kumar, CT Yap. Oncotarget. 2014 Aug 15; 5(15):5920-33. 
  20. An ultra-high-throughput spiral microfluidic biochip for the enrichment of circulating tumor cells. ME Warkiani, BL Khoo, DSW Tan, AAS Bhagat, WT Lim, YS Yap, SC Lee, RA Soo, JY Han, CT Lim. Analyst 2014; 139(13): 3245-55.
  21. Nanoprobe-based genetic testing. YB Zu, MH Tan, B Chowbay, SC Lee, HL Yap, MTM Lee, CP Chang, LS Lu, JY Ying. Nano Today. 2014 Apr; 9(2): 166-71.
  22. Predicting survival of de novo metastatic breast cancer in Asian women: Systematic review and validation study. H Miao, M Hartman, N Bhoo-Pathy, SC Lee, NA Taib, EY Tan, P Chan, KGM Moons, HS Wong, J Goh, SM Rahim, CH Yip, HM Verkooijen. PLOS One. 2014 Apr 2;9(4):e93755.
  23. Body fat composition impacts the hematologic toxicities and pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin in Asian breast cancer patients. AL Wong, KY Seng, EM Ong, LZ Wang, H Oscar, MT Cordero, R Copones, L Fan, SH Tan, BC Goh, SC Lee. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 2014 Feb;144(1):143-52.
  24. Slanted spiral microfluidics for the ultra-fast, label-free isolation of circulating tumor cells". ME Warkiani, GF Guan, BL Khoo, CL Wong, AS Bhagat, PK Chaudhuri, DSW Tan, WT Lim, SC Lee, PCY Chen, CT Lim, JY Han. Lab on a Chip. 2014 Jan, 14: 128.
  25. Surveillance mammography behavior and associated barriers in Singaporean Asian women. CT Teo, YWS Yeo, SC Lee. American Journal of Health Behaviour 2013 Sep;37(5):667-82.
  26. Correlation of aldo-ketoreductase (AKR)1C3 genetic variant with doxorubicin pharmacodynamics in Asian breast cancer patients. PJ Voon, HL Yap, CYT Ma, F Lu, ALA Wong, NS Sapari, R Soong, TIP Soh, BC Goh, HS Lee, SC Lee. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2013 Jun;75(6):1497-505.
  27. Hepatitis B virus reaction risk varies with different chemotherapy regimens commonly used in solid tumors. WHY Ling, PP Soe, ASL Pang, SC Lee. British Journal of Cancer 2013. 2013 May; 108(10): 1931–1935.
  28. Cancer Physicians’ attitude towards treatment of the elderly cancer patient in a developed Asian country. A Pang, S Ho, SC Lee. BMC Geriatrics 2013 Apr 16; 13:35.
  29. Interest and attitudes of patients, cancer physicians, medical students and cancer researchers towards a spectrum of genetic tests relevant to breast cancer patients. N Ngoi, SC Lee, M Hartman, LW Khin, A Wong. The Breast 2013 Feb;22(1):47-52.
  30. Translational aspects of genetic factors in the prediction of drug response variability: a case study of warfarin pharmacogenomics in a multi-ethnic cohort from Asia. SL Chan, S Chen, SC Lee, BC Goh, KS Chia, YY Teo. Pharmacogenomics Journal 2012 Aug;12(4):312-8.
  31. Does the axillary lymph node ratio have any added prognostic value over pN staging for South East Asian breast cancer patients?" N Saxena, M Hartman, CH Yip, NB Pathy; LW Khin, NA Taib, LM Looi, SE Lim, SC Lee, HM Verkooijen. PLOS One 2012, 7(9): e45809.
  32. Brain metastases in Asian HER2-positive breast cancer patients: anti-HER2 treatment and their impact on survival. YS Yap, GH Cornelio, BCR Devi, C Khorprasert, SB Kim, TY Kim, SC Lee, YH Park, JH Sohn, N Sutandyo, DWY Wong, M Kobayashi, SH Landis, EM Yeoh, H Moon, J Ro. Brit J  Cancer 2012; 107(7): 1075-82.
  33. An update on chemotherapy and tumor gene expression profiles in breast cancer. SH Tan, SC Lee. Expert opinion on drug metabolism and toxicology 2012, 8(9): 1083-113.
  34. Pharmacologic modulation strategies to reduce dose requirements of anti-cancer therapy while preserving clinical efficacy. YK Zee, BC Goh, SC Lee. Future Oncology 2012, 8(6): 731-49.
  35. Ethnic differences in survival after breast cancer in South East Asia. N Bhoo-Pathy, M Hartman, CH Yip, N Saxena, NA Taib, SE Lim, P Iau, HO Adami, AM Bulgiba, SC Lee, HM Verkooijen. PLoS One 2012; 7(2):e30995.
  36. Impact of UDP-gluconoryltransferase 2B17 genotype on vorinsotat metabolism and clinical outcomes in Asian breast cancer women. NS Wong, EZH Seah, LZ Wang, WL Yeo, HL Yap, B Chuah, YW Lim, PCS Ang, BC Tai, R Lim, BC Goh, SC Lee.  Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 2011; 21(11):760-8.
  37. LMTK3 expression in breast cancer; association with tumor phenotype and clinical outcome. J Stebbing, A Filipovic, IO Ellis, AR Green H-J Lenz, RC Coombes, TT Wang, SC Lee, G Giamas. Breast Cancer Res Treatment 2011; 132(2):537-44.
  38. Breast cancer in a multi-ethnic Asian setting: Results from the Singapore-Malaysia hospital-based breast cancer registry. N Bhoo Pathy, CH Yip, NA Taib, M Hartman, N Saxena, P Iau, AM Bulgiba, SC Lee, SE Lim, JE Wong, HM Verkooijen. Breast. 2011 Apr; 20 Suppl 2: S75-80.
  39. Phase I and pharmacodynamic study of an orally administered novel inhibitor of histone deacetylases, SB939, in patients with refractory solid malignancies. WP Yong, BC Goh, RA Soo, HC Toh, K Ethirajulu, J Wood, V Novotny-Diermayr, SC Lee, WL Yeo, D Chan, D Lim, E Seah, R Lim, J Zhu. Annals of Oncology 2011; 22(11):2516-22.
  40. Prognostic value of axillary lymph node status after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results from a multicenter study. N Saxena, M Hartman, R Aziz, E Rapit, NB Pathy, SE Lim, P Iau, NA Tiab, I Neyroud-Caspar, V Vinh-Hung, CH Yip, SC Lee, HM Verkooijen. Eur J Cancer 2011; 47(8): 1186-92.
  41. Serial changes in the expression of breast cancer-related proteins in response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. BYS Chuah, T Putti, M Salto-Tellez, A Charlton, P Iau, SA Buhari, CI Wong, SH Tan, ALA Wong, CW Chan, BC Goh, SC Lee. Annals of Oncology 2011; 22(8): 1748-54.
  42. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of S-1 between Caucasian and East Asian patients. B Chuah, BC Goh, SC Lee, R Soong, F Lau, M Mulay, M Dinolfo, SE Lim, R Soo, T Furuie, K Saito, C Zerbegel, L Rosen. Cancer Science 2011; 102(2): 478-83.
  43. Exon sequencing and association analysis of EPHX1 genetic variants with maintenance warfarin dose in a multi-ethnic Asian population. SL Chan, A Thalamuthu, BC Goh, KS Chia, B Chuah, A Wong, SC Lee. Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 2011; 21(1): 35-41.
  44. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamis of docetaxel with or without ketoconazole modulation in chemonaive breast cancer patients. YW Lim, BC Goh, LZ Wang, SH Tan, B Chuah, SE Lim, P Iau, SA Buhari, CW Chan, N Sukri, MT Cordero, R Soo, SC Lee. Ann Oncol 2010, 21(11): 2175-82.
  45. Phase III randomized trial of sunitnib versus capecitabine in patients with previously treated HER2-negative advanced breast cancer. CH Barrios, MC Liu, SC Lee, L Vanlemmens, J-M Ferrero, T Tabei, X Pivot H Iwata, K Aogi, R Lugo-Quintana, Na Harbeck, MJ Brickman, K Zhang, KA Kern, M Martin. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 2010; 121(1): 121-31.
  46. Clinical implications of chemotherapy-induced tumor gene expression in human breast cancers. SH Tan, SC Lee. Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology 2010; 6(3): 283-306.
  47. Phase II study of gemcitabine and carboplatin in metastatic breast cancers with prior exposure to anthracyclines and taxanes. D Chan, WL Yeo, MT Cordero, CI Wong, B Chuah, R Soo, SH Tan, SE Lim, BC Goh, SC Lee. Investigational New Drug 2010, 28(6): 859-65.
  48. Post-treatment tumor gene expression signatures are more predictive of treatment outcomes than baseline signatures in breast cancer. SC Lee, X Xu, WJ Chng, M Watson, YW Lim, CI Wong, P Iau, N Sukri, SE Lim, HL Yap, SA Buhari, P Tan, JY Guo, B Chuah, HL McLeod, BC Goh. Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 2009; 19(11): 833-42.
  49. Phase I and biomarker study of ABT-869, a multiple receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with refractory solid malignancies. CI Wong, TS Koh, R Soo, S Hartono, CH Thng, E McKeegan, WP Yong, CS Chen, SC Lee, J Wong, R Lim, N Sukri, SE Lim, AB Ong, J Steinberg, N Gupta, R Pradhan, R Humerickhouse, BC Goh. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27(28): 4718-26.
  50. Chemotherapy-induced tumor gene expression changes in human breast cancers. SC Lee, X Xu, YW Lim, P Iau, N Sukri, SE Lim, HL Yap, WL Yeo, P Tan, SH Tan, H McLeod, BC Goh. Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 2009; 19: 181-92.
  51. Pharmacodynamic effects of seliciclib, an orally administered cell cycle modulator, in undifferentiated nasopharyngeal cancer. WS Hsieh, R Soo, BK Peh, T Loh, DF Dong, D Soh, LS Wong, S Green, J Chiao, CY Cui, YF Lai, SC Lee, B Mow, R Soong, M Salto-Tellez, BC Goh. Clin Cancer Research 2009; 15(4): 1435-42.
  52. Estimation of the warfarin dose with clinical and pharmacogenetic data. International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium, Klein TE, Altman RB, Eriksson N, Gage BF, Kimmel SE, Lee MT, Limdi NA, Page D, Roden DM, Wagner MJ, Caldwell MD, Johnson JA, Chen YT, Wen MS, Caraco Y, Achache I, Blotnick S, Muszkat M, Shin JG, Kim HS, Suarez-Kurtz G, Perini JA, Silva-Assunção E, Anderson JL, Horne BD, Carlquist JF, Berg RL, Burmester JK, Goh BC, SC Lee, Kamali F, Sconce E, Daly AK, Wu AH, Langaee TY, Feng H, Cavallari L, Momary K, Pirmohamed M, Jorgensen A, Toh CH, Williamson P, McLeod H, Evans JP, Weck KE, Brensinger C, Nakamura Y, Mushiroda T, Veenstra D, Meckley L, Rieder MJ, Rettie AE, Wadelius M, Melhus H, Stein CM, Schwartz U, Kurnik D, Lenzini P, Eby C, Chen LY, Deloukas P, Motsinger-Reif A, Altman RB, Sagreiya H, Srinivasan BS, Eriksson N, Lantz E, Chang T, Ritchie M, Deych E, Lu LS, Shin JG, Srinivasan BS. New England Journal of Medicine 2009; 360(8): 753-64.
  53. Pharmacogenetics in Breast Cancer Therapy. SH Tan, SC Lee, BC Goh, J Wong. Clin Cancer Research 2008; 14(24): 8027-41.
  54. Genotype of human carbonyl reductase CBR3 correlates with doxorubicin disposition and toxicity. L Fan, BC Goh, CI Wong, N Sukri, SE Lim, SH Tan, JY Guo, R Lim, HL Yap, YM Khoo, P Iau, HS Lee, SC Lee. Pharmacogenetics and genomics 2008; 18(7): 623-31.
  55. Lack of association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in PXR, HNF4α and CAR with docetaxel pharmacokinetics. LS Tham, N Holford, SY Hor, T Tan, LZ Wang, RC Lim, HS Lee, SC Lee, BC Goh. Clin Cancer Research 2007; 13(23): 7126-32.
  56. Inter-ethnic variability in warfarin requirement is explained by VKORC1 genotype in an Asian population. SC Lee, SS Ng, J Oldenburg, PY Chong, S Rost, JY Guo, HL Yap, SC Rankin, HB Khor, TC Yeo, KS Ng, R Soong, BC Goh. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2006; 79(3): 197-205.
  57. Novel CYP2C9 genetic variants in Asians and their influence on maintenance warfarin dose. F Zhao, C Loke, SC Rankin, JY Guo, HS Lee, TS Wu, T Tan, WL Lu, TC Yeo, Q Zhang, BC Goh, SC Lee. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2004; 76(3): 210-9.
  58. BRCA1 c2845insA is a recurring mutation with a founder effect in Singapore Malay women with early onset breast / ovarian cancer. JH Sng, Damayanthi, Azar, SC Lee, JEL Wong, P Iau. J Med Genet 2003; 40(10): e117.
  59. Explaining inter-individual variability of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in Asians through genotyping and phenotyping strategies. BC Goh, SC Lee, LZ Wang, L Fan, JY Guo, E Schuetz, R Lim, HL Lim, AB Ong, HS Lee. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20(17): 3683-90.
  60. Utilization of BRCA1/2 genetic testing in the clinical setting: report from a single institution. SC Lee, BA Bernhardt, KJ Helzlsouer. Cancer 2002; 94(6): 1876-85.

Updated as of 5 September 2017