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Research & Education

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials

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Cancer clinical trials are research studies that involve people, designed to test new methods in the prevention, screening, and/or treatment of cancer. HORG is specialised in conducting trials on new cancer treatments. These trials are conducted in different phases (Phase 1, 2, and 3) to evaluate the safety, side effects, and effectiveness of new treatments before they become widely available.

Clinical trials provide an opportunity for patients to receive cutting-edge treatments and contribute to advancing cancer research.

  • ​Drugs are tested in human subjects for the first time, either as a single agent or a new combination in a small number of patients.  
  • The aim is to understand if the drug is safe, and to understand how the drug interacts with the human body.

  • A safe dosage of drug has been determined in phase 1 trials. The new drug is now tested on a particular cancer type in more patients. 
  • The aim is to determine if the drug can control the growth of a particular cancer type, and to understand more about the safety profile of the drug.

  • ​A drug that has passed Phase 2 studies will now proceed to Phase 3 development.
  • Here, the drug is tested in many patients to further confirm its safety and effectiveness. 
  • At this stage, the treatment is usually compared against current standards of treatment.
  • If a phase 3 trial is successful, the next step will be application for regulatory approval for the new treatment to be used in the general population. 

A drug will be approved and introduced to the general population after approval by regulatory bodies (e.g., The Health Sciences Authority in Singapore) for clinical use, based on positive findings from Phase 3 trials.

​Non-therapeutic studies are research studies that are not aimed at developing new treatments for a disease. Rather, these studies may test new diagnostic tools or procedures, evaluate the effectiveness of prevention strategies, or explore the natural history of a disease. Participants in non-therapeutic studies do not receive any experimental treatments. However, findings from a non-therapeutic study can contribute to the advancement of medical knowledge and the development of new therapies in the future.